Organ Bioprinting is a new approach in the field of regenerative medicine that try to make a whole intact functionally active organ from tissue specific cells. Providing such organs are very important because every year many patients need to organ transplantation but the number of donors are so limited. Organs made from different tissue with different kinds of cell types and for Organ Bioprinting first we need to provide these cell types. Currently, with regards to advances in stem cell biology specially invention of easy methods for isolation mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as one the appropriate cell type for regeneration purpose and also due to their unique properties including lack of immune-rejection in allograft, MSCs have gained attention for using in organ production. MSCs can isolate from many tissues of adults and differentiate in a targeted manner into cells of interest; provide a main material of tissue engineering triangle (i.e. cells, biomaterial and growth factors) for 3D bioprinting of human organs on a substrate. Printers have the ability of designing tissues and organs with fusing living tissue specific cells and extracellular matrix in layers to produce 3D biologically functional new organ. It is conceivable that in the near future, stem cells will play their predicted role; i.e. whole organ production.
Objectives: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play an important role in treating damaged tissues, growing and developing body tissues. Nowadays, the injection of stem cells has been considered for therapeutic purposes. Some substances which can be effective in the success rate of treatment are injected with the stem cells in the stem cell therapy. Anesthetics are a group of them. Local anesthetics toxicity on tissues such as nerve, cartilage, muscle and tendon are well described in many studies. Studies show local anesthesia can be toxic for stem cells too, and induce MSCs apoptosis and necrosis As a result, repairing of tissue by stem cells can be in trouble in damaged tissue which exposure to LAs. According to this, it is important to find the appropriate LA which has the least toxic effect on stem cells. In this study, we have considered the effects of LA such as lidocaine, bupivacaine, ropivacaine and mepivacaine on MSCs. Literature review: Local anesthetics toxicity has been described on chondrocytes by several studies. In this study, we have tried to find the effects of these drugs on mesenchymal stem cells. We have arranged local anesthetics for toxic effects to MSCs from high to low. According to this arrangement bupivacaine is the first drug, after that there are mepivacaine, lidocaine and ropivacaine, respectively. This sequence can be true for increasing the cellular metabolism, adhesive cells adhesion and also cellular appendages. Conclusion: The studies have indicated that MSCs is more sensitive to local anesthetics in comparison with chondrocytes. In addition to type of LAs, exposure time and drug dose play an important role in damaging to the MSCs. In other word, LAs effects are dose-dependent and time-dependent. however, The studies consider lesser neurotoxicity and longer local anesthesia effect for bupivacaine in comparison with other LAs such as lidocaine but it is recommended to use drugs which are safer (such as ropivacaine) in procedures including stem cell therapy, prolonged anesthesia and tissues are repairing. Because bupivacaine has high toxicity effect on mesenchymal stem cells.
Fahime Karimi, Mohammad Reza Hashemzadeh, Muhammad Irfan-Maqsood, Mohammad Amin Edalatmanesh, Hojjat Naderi-Meshkin
Neural stem cells (NSCs) have considerable capacity for self-renewing and also ability for generating neurons in the mammalian brain. However, one of the big challenges is the migration and targeted homing of transplanted NSCs into the injured site to treat neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer´s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), multiple sclerosis (MS), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), brain ischemia (BI) and spinal cord injury (SCI). To improve homing capacity, pretreatment of NSCs with Valproic acid (VPA), which is supposed to cause diverse effects on migration ability of NSCs, is a strategy. In this study, NSCs were isolated from the hindbrain and olfactory bulbs of postnatal day 1 (PND1) rats. These isolated cells were characterized by expressing neuronal markers such as Nestin and Sox2. Detailed gene expression profiles were investigated using RT-PCR and Real-time PCR in treated and untreated NSCs.Here, it has been shown that NSCs treated with VPA have enhanced expression of CXC4, CXCR6, CCR7 and CCR1, which are important effectors in homing of stem cells.It is concluded that VPA treatment enhances NSCs migration and homing showing its potential to be applied for cell-based therapies.